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Bellows

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... that appear similar. If you fall into that mindset, you will give the same recommendation—which obviously did not solve the problem the first time. For example, 16 years ago I was given a seven-ply bellows made from Haynes 188, a cobalt-base superalloy, for metallurgical analysis. The bellows was one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... of inquiry concluded that when the leaking reactor No. 5 was replaced by a dog-leg pipe with bellows at the two ends, to bridge reactors 4 and 6, there was no proper design study, no proper consideration for the need for a support, no safety testing, no reference to the relevant standards, and no reference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... was set. Because the outlet of reactor 4 and the inlet of reactor 6 were at different levels, the two reactors were joined by an inadequately supported bypass assembly consisting of a “dog-leg” pipe of three segments between two expansion bellows at their ends. The fact that bridging the gap with a span...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... transmitted to the rest of the exhaust system. It consists of a double-wall pipe in a bellows configuration with an outer covering of braided stainless steel wire. It must have very good high-temperature fatigue strength to withstand the cyclic stress of the vibration it absorbs. The material used must have...
Book Chapter

By Kenneth A. Walsh
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...%) beryllium content. It is used for electrical contacts, springs, clips, switches, bellows, and Bourdon pressure gages. Strip product in the range of 0.03 to 0.40 mm thickness is commonly used as the manufacturing base for these products. The high-conductivity alloys have low beryllium levels of 0.3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... that could be produced. Bellows, a device used for blowing air into a fire, were used to raise the temperature. With further refinements, this process was used for many centuries to produce what we call “ wrought iron .” During the many early years that humans used iron, wrought iron was the dominant form...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... A wide range of photographic devices can be employed. Traditionally, a bellows or zoom system is employed on the metallograph to provide greater choice of magnifications. In many cases, 4 by 5 in sheet film is employed, and contact prints are made from the negative. In this case, a simple film holder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... rather than straight lines into the system. When this is done, heating and cooling cycles simply cause distortion of the curves, rather than forming tensile residual stresses upon cooling. Expansion loops and bellows in elevated-temperature piping and tubing systems operate on this principle. Thermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... strength) Automotive turbochargers (high fatigue resistance and low density) Pistons and valves (wear resistance and capability of developing a thermal barrier by high-temperature oxidation treatment) Bellows for expansion joints to be used in corrosive environments (good aqueous corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... furnaces to a high temperature by the use of an air blast from skin bellows. Melting occurred as the iron absorbed carbon from the wood. Once completely molten, the resulting steel was uniform in carbon. This was the first truly homogeneous steel. The art of making steel existed in ancient and medieval...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... is available in black and white and in color. Prints can be greatly enlarged with little loss of detail. Macro cameras are another form of the view camera. They are particularly adapted to produce magnified photos. This is accomplished by use of special lenses in conjunction with focusing bellows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... resistance, fabricability, and strength Haynes 230 Combustion environments, nitric acid catalyst grids, high-temperature bellows, industrial furnace fixtures and hardware, strand annealing tubes, thermocouple protection tubes Strength, stability, and oxidation resistance up to 1150 °C (2100 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... arc furnace is commonly used. However, cupola furnaces are used where large tonnages are required for ironmaking. Melting in cupola furnaces dates back several centuries to the old cask-type units that were operated with hand-pumped bellows. Modern cupola furnaces may no longer use manually-operated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
.... Rhee S.K. , Wear , Vol 16 , 1970 , p 431 10.1016/0043-1648(70)90170-5 9. Kar M.K. and Bahadur S. , The Wear Equation for Unfilled and Filled Polyoxymethylene , Wear , Vol 30 , 1974 , p 337 – 348 10.1016/0043-1648(74)90148-3 10. Viswanath N. and Bellow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Ti-6Al-4V engine nacelle component for the Boeing 757 aircraft. (a) Part as previously fabricated required 41 detail parts and more than 200 fasteners. (b) Superplastically formed part is formed from a single sheet. Courtesy of Metal Bellows Division of Parker Bertea Aerospace Group. Source: Ref 1.7...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
.... Figure 2.26 shows a steering linkage in which the left-hand link consists of sections of extruded profiles, whereas the flexible right-hand part is manufactured from impact extruded tube sections with formed bellows. In an accident, the bellows deform so that the impact on the steering column is reduced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Stress concentrations can be reduced through appropriate design changes that take thermal expansion and contraction into account. For example, expansion loops and bellows in elevated-temperature piping and tubing systems take advantage of this principle. Creep deformation is a permanent strain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of conventional camera, using bellows, is becoming less available. When the sample to be photographed has low contrast, the quality and size of the reflector are especially important. Too large a reflector for a given sample ( Fig. 4.15b ) will result in loss of light intensity because part of the light...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... or building nonmetallic films (e.g., anodizing aluminum alloys), and by providing cathodic protection. Pitting is a form of highly localized attack characterized by the formation of small pits on the surface. Several pits in an austenitic stainless steel thin-walled bellows are shown in Fig. 18.6...