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Annealing furnaces

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum induction melting furnaces, and electroslag and vacuum arc remelting furnaces. It also covers casting, rolling, and annealing procedures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... to as box annealing. Blue annealing In this process, hot rolled ferrous sheet is heated in an open furnace to a temperature within the transformation range and then cooled in air. The formation of a bluish oxide on the surface is incidental. Box annealing Refers to heating steel in a sealed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... to achieve the desired objectives of quenching, annealing, and aging along with the associated risks of surface damage caused by oxidation, carbon pickup, alloy depletion, intergranular attack, and environmental contaminants. It also discusses heat treatment atmospheres, furnace and fixturing requirements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... furnaces. (a) Pit furnace. (b) Bell and hood furnace. (c) Elevated hearth vacuum furnace, which is the reverse version of the bell and hood type Fig. 9.25 Comparison of time-temperature cycles for normalizing and full annealing. The slower cooling of annealing results in higher temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... temperature and then cooled either in the furnace or quenched in air, gas, or liquid. Four heat treatment methods are primarily used for through-hardened gears: annealing, normalizing and annealing, normalizing and tempering, and quenching and tempering. This chapter begins with a discussion of these through...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... Heat treatment Description A (FC) Annealedfurnace cooled to room temperature (293 K) B (FC + N) Annealedfurnace cooled to room temperature → soaked in liquid N (77 K) for 1 h → brought to room temperature C (OQ) Annealed → oil quenched to room temperature A’ (WC) Annealed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... . Microstructure plays an important role in the properties and performance of steels. The development of microstructure in AHSS occurs by controlling the cooling rate from the austenite or austenite plus ferrite for hot rolled products or by regulating the cooling section of the continuous annealing furnace...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... In rolling, these characteristics of titanium led to installing rolling equipment specifically designed for titanium. This special rolling equipment includes four-high hot mills, cluster mills, and continuous vacuum annealing furnaces for close-tolerance sheet and strip, and improved heating furnaces...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of batch annealing A much faster process that is increasingly used is continuous annealing. The steel sheet is uncoiled and rapidly passed through high-temperature zones in continuous annealing furnaces. An integrated continuous cold rolling and annealing line is depicted in Fig. 19.10 . Continuous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., and descale, or to immerse in molten salt and then pickle. The difficulty in scale removal was traced to the open hearth, gas-fired annealing furnaces. It was found that the atmosphere was reducing while the burners were on, and that a thin, tight scale was produced. A satisfactory remedy was to adjust...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... different surface conditions: as-ground surface, elecropolished surface, and black-annealed surface. Source: Ref 94 Fig. 5.80 Metal dusting behavior in terms of weight change tested at 621 °C (1150 °F) in H 2 -80CO for alloy 601 in various surface conditions. Source: Ref 98 Fig. 5.81...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... to a temperature below the normalizing temperature. Figure 5 shows the results obtained with gray iron rings that were heated to 955 °C (1750 °F), then furnace cooled to different temperatures before being removed from the furnace and cooled in air. These data also indicate that annealing can be accomplished...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... for maximum machinability 700–760 1300–1400 45 min/2.54 cm (1 in.) of cross section Furnace cool (55 °C/h, or 100 °F/h) to 315 °C (600 °F). Cool in still air from 315 °C to room temperature. Medium-temperature full anneal For conversion of pearlite to ferrite in irons unresponsive to low-temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
...) above the upper critical temperature and held for the desired length of time, followed by very slow cooling in the furnace. The purposes of full annealing are to: Soften the steel and improve ductility and machinability Relieve internal stresses caused by previous treatment and improve...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... that require stress relieving, annealing, or normalizing. Another batch-type furnace is shown in Fig. 2 . This unit is heated by convection and frequently is used for tempering, stress relieving, or process (subcritical) annealing. As indicated in Fig. 2 , this type of furnace is a top loader...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... treatment of tool steels requires meticulous attention to details. Furnace and workpiece temperatures must be accurately controlled, particularly when the steel is austenitized for an annealing treatment or hardening treatment. Similarly, the holding and soaking times at temperature must be accurately...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... reasons. Refinement of the forged structure is important in producing a high-quality, hardened product. The parts come from the forging operation too hard for cold trimming of the flash or for any machining operations. Ordinary annealing practice, followed by furnace cooling to about 595 °C (1100 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... cool. (c) Not normally supplied or used in annealed condition. (d) Furnace or slow cool to 540 °C (1000 °F), then air cool. Beta transus for commercially pure titanium and selected titanium alloys Table 8.2 Beta transus for commercially pure titanium and selected titanium alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... the tempering temperature used after quenching. Full annealing Heating 30–50 °C (55–90 °F) above Ac 3 for hypoeutectoid steels, then furnace cooling through the critical temperature range at a specified cooling rate. The aim is to break the continuous carbide network of high-carbon steels. It improves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... of Frequency for through Heating Selection of Power Rating for through Heating Surface Hardening Localized Annealing of Steel Pipe Welds Mechanical Design Features Electrical Design Features Design Considerations for Coreless Induction Melting Furnaces Design Considerations for Channel...