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Annealing furnaces

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Image
Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 6.13 Coil annealing furnaces for aluminum. Courtesy of Seco/Warwick More
Image
Published: 01 December 1995
Fig. 2-152 Roller shaft assembly for annealing furnace. Tubes are centrifugally cast of heat-resistant 25% chromium, 12% nickel steel. More
Image
Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 1-20 Macroetching of a section cut from an AISI 1020 (semikilled) basket handle used in a continuous annealing furnace revealed coarse dendritic grain growth associated with decarburization. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... induction melting furnaces, and electroslag and vacuum arc remelting furnaces. It also covers casting, rolling, and annealing procedures and describes the basic steps in aluminum and titanium production. primary metal production rolling steel refining A GENERAL DIAGRAM for the production...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... reactions that occur during annealing: decarburization and scaling. Information on the gases and gas mixtures used for controlled atmospheres is then provided. The second part of the chapter focuses on the processes involved in normalizing, along with information on furnace equipment for normalizing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... objectives of quenching, annealing, and aging along with the associated risks of surface damage caused by oxidation, carbon pickup, alloy depletion, intergranular attack, and environmental contaminants. It also discusses heat treatment atmospheres, furnace and fixturing requirements, and practical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... and then cooled either in the furnace or quenched in air, gas, or liquid. Four heat treatment methods are primarily used for through-hardened gears: annealing, normalizing and annealing, normalizing and tempering, and quenching and tempering. This chapter begins with a discussion of these through-hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... on hardenability and tempering response. It discusses the significance of critical temperatures, the use of transformation diagrams, and types of annealing treatments. It also provides information on heat treating furnaces, the effect of heating rate on transformation temperatures, quench and temper procedures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... annealing cycles. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 19.9 Three methods of batch annealing A much faster process that is increasingly used is continuous annealing. The steel sheet is uncoiled and rapidly passed through high-temperature zones in continuous annealing furnaces. An integrated continuous cold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... for softening processes to produce final, O and H2 x temper, properties or simply soften the metal for further cold rolling. Typically, these annealing treatments are performed in a batch furnace that anneal one or more coils at the same time ( Fig. 6.13 ). The thermal practices are well established...
Image
Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 14.22 Effect of cooling rates on microstructure of α alloy Ti-5Al-Sn after β annealed 30 min at 1175 °C (2150 °F). (a) Coarse, platelike α produced by furnace cooling to 790 °C (1450 °F) in 6 h, followed by furnace cooling to room temperature in 2 h. Original magnification: 100×. (b) Air More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... operations have been established and equipment designed and fabricated to meet the special needs of this reactive metal. Special operations and equipment include: Furnaces with better temperature uniformity Heavier forging presses and rigid rolling mills Vacuum annealing furnaces Improved...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... table of the hot mill (for hot rolled products) or in the cooling section of the continuous annealing furnace (for continuously annealed or hot dip coated products). Steels are produced based on annealing the material in the two-phase intercritical temperature region where the carbon content...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... Thermal treatments used to process Fe-24Mn alloy Table 9.3 Thermal treatments used to process Fe-24Mn alloy Heat treatment Description A (FC) Annealedfurnace cooled to room temperature (293 K) B (FC + N) Annealedfurnace cooled to room temperature → soaked in liquid N (77 K...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...), then furnace cooled to different temperatures before being removed from the furnace and cooled in air. These data also indicate that annealing can be accomplished by cooling castings in the furnace to 650 °C (1200 °F) and then air cooling. However, if stress-free castings are desired, they should be cooled...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... annealed by heating to 800 to 900 °C (1475 to 1650 °F) and then furnace cooled to a prescribed temperature, generally below 315 °C (600 °F). Typical hardnesses obtained after full annealing gears of different materials are shown in Table 2 . Annealing refers to any heating and cooling operation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
.... Many instances of unsatisfactory response to annealing or hardening are blamed on metallurgical or compositional variations in the castings, when, in fact, variation in temperature distribution in the furnace is the cause of the trouble. Continuous production line furnaces also may be subject...
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 4.7 (Part 1) Cold-rolled low-carbon strip annealed at subcritical temperatures. Rimming grade, reduced 70%. 0.09C-0.005Si-0.43Mn (wt%). Cooling was approximately equivalent to furnace cooling. (a) Annealed 30 min at 650 °C, then cooled at 100 °C/h. 105 HV. 3% nital. 500×. (b) Annealed More
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 4.6 (Part 1) Cold-rolled low-carbon strip annealed at subcritical temperatures. Rimming grade, reduced 70% (this material in the as-rolled condition is shown in Fig. 5.7 and 5.8 ). 0.09C-0.005Si-0.43Mn (wt%). Cooling was approximately equivalent to furnace cooling. (a) Annealed 30 More
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Published: 01 December 2000
%; 100×. (b) Annealed 1 h at 1000 °C (1832 °F), water quenched, 0.2% yield strength: 228 MPa (33 ksi), tensile strength: 290 MPa (42 ksi), elongation: 60%; 100×. (c) Annealed at 1000 °C (1832 °F), furnace cooled, 0.2% yield strength: 165 MPa (24 ksi), tensile strength: 262 MPa (38 ksi), elongation: 60 More