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Annealing

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the general characteristics of major types of steel annealing, including the process of normalization, which is a process that refines or normalizes the microstructure of steel. The first part of the chapter begins with an overview of the three-stage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on the mechanical properties of ferrite/pearlite microstructures in medium-carbon steels. annealing ferrite normalizing pearlite spherical carbides spheroidizing THIS CHAPTER DESCRIBES heat treatments that are designed to produce uniformity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the heat treatments called annealing and normalizing for steels and examines the structures formed and the reasons for these treatments. It also provides a description of the special heat treatments, namely, martempering and austempering. Information...
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 14.1 Stages of annealing. (a) Effect of annealing time at fixed temperature (400 °C, or 750 °F) on hardness of a Cu-5Zn solid-solution alloy cold worked 60%. (b) Effect of annealing temperature at fixed time (15 min) on hardness of a Cu-5Zn solid-solution alloy cold worked 60%. Source: Ref More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 12.7 Comparison of (a) box or batch annealing and (c) continuous annealing relative to (b) the low-carbon side of the Fe-Fe 3 C equilibrium diagram. Source: Ref 12.13 More
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Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 8-9 Effect of annealing time on the annealing curves of a Cu-5% Zn alloy. (From same source as Fig. 8-3a ) More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the microstructure and properties of annealed and normalized steels containing more than 0.25% carbon. It shows, using detailed micrographs, how incrementally higher levels of carbon affect the structure and distribution of pearlite and how...
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Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 3-26 Molybdenum (after annealing, 1400°C, 30 min) etched with Murakami’s reagent, 75 ×. (Courtesy of R. D. Buchheit, Battelle Memorial Institute.) More
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Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 4-15 Use of dark-field illumination to reveal annealing twins and substructure in an AISI 1080 sample thermally etched at 2000°F. Austenite grain boundaries and oxide particles are visible using both modes (75 ×). More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 8.63 Equiaxed alpha produced in rapidly solidified Ti-6Al-4V after annealing at 965 °C (1765 °F) More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 9.11 Continuous vacuum annealing is used to process thin strip free from surface contamination. Courtesy of Timet More
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Published: 01 December 2000
Fig. 12.7 Microstructure of commercially pure titanium after annealing in the alpha region or the beta region and cooling to ambient temperatures. (a) Annealed 1 h at 800 °C (1472 °F), water quenched, 0.2% yield strength: 124 MPa (18 ksi), tensile strength: 248 MPa (36 ksi), elongation: 80%; 100 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 4.26 Effect of cooling rate from annealing temperature on tensile properties. Tests on Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V 2.3 mm (0.090 in.) sheet indicate that tensile and yield strengths are higher with slower cooling rates. Elongation is also slightly greater, but notched strength is lower. AC, air cool; WQ More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 5.21 Effects of annealing time and temperature on the average diameter of recrystallized grains of iodide titanium cold rolled 94% More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 5.22 Effect of carbon and annealing temperature (for 24 h) on grain growth in Ti-11Mo alloy More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 5.23 Effect of iron and annealing time on grain growth of titanium annealed at 760 °C (1400 °F) after 75% cold work More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 5.25 Effect of annealing temperature on grain size of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn. Grain growth is very rapid at the beta transus temperature (1015 °C, or 1860 °F) and higher. More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 6.3 Effect of the time of alpha-beta annealing after alpha-beta working on the morphology of the alpha phase in Ti-6Al-4V More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 6.4 Effect of cooling rate from the alpha-beta annealing temperature on microstructure More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 6.29 Effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure of elevated-temperature near-alpha titanium alloys More