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Ammonia

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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 21.41 Ammonia concentration in ammonia-hydrogen mixtures and temperature ranges for the formation of various Fe-N phases. Source: Ref 21.72 More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 12.27 (Part 1) Case carburizing: gas carburizing in an ammonia-containing atmosphere. 0.15% C (0.17C-0.05Si-0.64Mn, wt%). (a) and (b) Gas carburized at 880 °C for 3.25 h; 5% ammonia added during last hour, sealed quench in oil. Direct from carburizing furnace; tempered at 150 °C More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 12.27 (Part 2) Case carburizing: gas carburizing in an ammonia-containing atmosphere. 0.15% C (0.17C-0.05Si-0.64Mn, wt%). (a) and (b) Gas carburized at 880 °C for 3.25 h; 5% ammonia added during last hour, sealed quench in oil. Direct from carburizing furnace; tempered at 150 °C More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.26 Nitriding depth of Type 304SS in ammonia (100% in the inlet gas and 60% in the exhaust) at 525 °C (980 °F) as a function of exposure time. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 3 Schematic of a simple ammonia gas nitriding furnace More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 1 Simple schematic arrangement of an ammonia gas nitriding system. A, bulk storage tank; B, gas nitriding furnace; C, gas dissociation test station; D, exhaust to atmosphere. Source: Pye Metallurgical Consulting Inc. More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 3 Illustration of the ammonia molecule 2NH 3 and its decomposition More
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Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 8 Increase in end-quench hardenability by adding ammonia to the carburizing atmosphere. These curves were obtained under the following processing conditions: 3 hour treatment time at 840 °C (1550 °F), water quench; furnace atmospheres: 90% endothermic carrier gas, 10% natural gas under More
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Published: 01 June 2007
Fig. 7.10 Fatigue curves for two dissociated-ammonia-sintered ferritic stainless steels; parenthetical. Sintered densities of 403N2 and 434N2 were 7.04 and 7.07 g/cm 3 , respectively. Sintered densities of 430N29 and 434N29 were 7.27 and 7.24 g/cm 3 , respectively. Sintering temperature More
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Published: 01 June 2007
Fig. 5.52 Auger composition-depth profile of 316L sintered in dissociated ammonia and slowly furnace cooled. Note chromium and nitrogen enrichment on surface. Source: Ref 28 . Reprinted with permission from MPIF, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... and design. It also covers the processes involved in the construction and maintenance of retorts, methods for sealing a retort to prevent ammonia leaks, and safety precautions to be taken while using ammonia. Further, the chapter provides information on the factors for choosing a heating medium and discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... ammonia is used, distortion, and preheat treatment. ammonia distortion gas dissociation nitriding nitrogen liberation preheat treatment SEVERAL PROCESS PARAMETERS must be considered in order to ensure nitriding success in terms of metallurgy and distortion: Nitrogen source Heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... to the practice of storing the cartridge cases in horse barns, where they came in contact with ammonia vapors. A further contributing factor was the cold forming operation used to make the cases, which introduced high residual tensile stresses. Sperry ( Ref 7.1 ) provides further discussion of these early SCC...
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 2 Schematic of interstitial diffusion during the nitriding process. The work is heated to the nitriding temperature with ammonia flowing into the retort. The ammonia gas dissociates to nitrogen and hydrogen at the part surface. The nitrogen diffuses into the work in atomic form More
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Published: 01 June 2007
Fig. 7.5 Effect of temperature on the equilibrium nitrogen content of 304L in dissociated ammonia (D.A.) and nitrogen (bottom); and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of 304L sintered in pure hydrogen at 1204 °C (2200 °F) and then nitrided in dissociated ammonia long enough More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... It provides images and data describing the nitridation process and its effects on metals and alloys in high-temperature air as well as NH3-H2O, NH3 and H2-N2-NH3, and N2 environments. It also includes test data showing that nitridation is more severe in a nitrogen atmosphere than an ammonia environment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... Abstract Nitriding is a surface hardening heat treatment that introduces nitrogen into the surface of steel while it is in the ferritic condition. Gas nitriding using ammonia as the nitrogen-carrying species is the most commonly employed process and is emphasized in this chapter. Nitriding...
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Published: 01 June 2007
Fig. 5.46 Chromium nitride precipitates in 316L. (a) Sintered at 1150 °C (2100 °F) in dissociated ammonia; 4500 ppm N 2 ; Cr 2 N precipitates along grain boundaries (1) and within grains (2). (b) Sintered at 1120 °C (2050 °F) in dissociated ammonia and slowly cooled; 6500 ppm N 2 ; Cr 2 N More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... published in conjunction with Ref 4 , which includes 33 references that describe the influence of compound layer thickness, phase composition, chemical composition, and microstructure on the behavior of nitrided steels. Dilution When hydrogen is added to the flow of ammonia during gas nitriding...