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Alkalies, environment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract All materials are susceptible to corrosion or some form of environmental degradation. Although no single material is suitable for all applications, usually there are a variety of materials that will perform satisfactorily in a given environment. The intent of this chapter is to review...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... important properties. Coatings and linings may protect substrates by three basic mechanisms: Barrier protection Chemical inhibition Galvanic (sacrificial) protection Barrier protection is achieved when coatings completely isolate the substrate from the environment. Chemical inhibition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... environments, etc.) with deleterious man-made environmental contributions (road salts, atmospheric pollutants and emissions, and acid rain) provide a uniquely aggressive corrosive environment for automobiles. The goal of this chapter is to point out the connection between the characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... that possess a body-centered tetragonal (bct) crystal structure (martensitic) in the hardened condition. They are ferromagnetic and generally resistant to corrosion only in relatively mild environments. Martensitic stainless steels are similar to plain carbon or low-alloy steels that are austenitized, hardened...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., minerals in the coal are exposed to high temperatures, which causes the release of volatile alkali compounds and sulfur oxides. In coal-ash corrosion, the deposition of fly ash occurs on the hot surfaces (with operating temperatures ranging from 540 to 700 °C, or 1005 to 1290 °F) of the superheater...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... atmospheres, hence the designation “stainless.” The corrosion resistance of stainless steels is provided by a very thin and protective surface film, known as the passive film, which, when damaged, is self-healing in the presence of a wide variety of environments. The Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-N grades...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... properties of a component. For example, coatings that increase the hardness, strength, and toughness can improve the component wear, fatigue, and erosion properties, respectively. Electrical properties in circuit design are dependent on surface-deposition processes. Similarly, environmental properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the separation in the galvanic series, as described subsequently. Environmental Control In particular cases, it is possible to reduce or eliminate galvanic-corrosion effects between widely dissimilar metals or alloys in a particular environment. The use of corrosion inhibitors is effective in some cases...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... is a common corrosive environment. The galvanic series ranks alloys according to their cathode potential in seawater ( Table 12.2 ). The galvanic series of common alloys Table 12.2 The galvanic series of common alloys Graphite Silver 12% Ni, 18% Cr, 3% Mo steel—P 20% Ni, 25% Cr steel—P...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter covers the corrosion behavior of beryllium in aqueous environments. It describes the chemical reactions that drive the corrosion process, the conditions required for equilibrium, and the factors that affect corrosion resistance. It discusses the stability of the native...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... with no degradation to product quality. Properly stored units refer to the integrity of the moisture barrier bag (MBB), the desiccant, the humidity indicator card (HIC) and the storage environment itself being properly specified and maintained. Another consideration in moving to a longer storage life is to increase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler environments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... produce immediate failure. It describes crack growth mechanisms, explains how to measure crack growth rates and predict time to failure, and provides crack growth data for a number of materials and environments. ceramics environmentally enhanced crack growth glass stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... chamber. The oxide layer was found to have a higher resistance to surface corrosion than if the steel was left untreated. The key elements of the process are: Temperature Time Suitable nitrogen source Suitable carbon source Sealed and controlled environment It is now more than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... to this type of failure ( Ref 18.21 ). Despite the substantial progress that has been achieved in the field, SCC continues to be not only an economic problem but also a safety and environmental concern, because SCC failures have been detected in a wide range of environments, steel grades, and steel structures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... are among the most widely used surface-engineering processes. Paints or linings that act as protective film to isolate the substrate from the environment exist in a number of different forms. Sheet linings, commonly of the vinyl or vinylidene chloride family, are one such type of coating that can be either...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... corrosion high-temperature oxidation intergranular corrosion pitting corrosion stress-corrosion cracking uniform corrosion CORROSION is the gradual degradation of a material due to the environment. In fact, the word corrode is derived from the Latin corrodere , which means to gnaw to pieces...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of the metal, by conditioning the environment, and by electrochemical control. Finally, the chapter deals with high-temperature oxidation that usually occurs in the absence of moisture. uniform corrosion galvanic corrosion pitting corrosion crevice corrosion erosion corrosion cavitation corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Managing corrosion continues to be a challenge for operators of modern boilers worldwide. This chapter addresses the corrosion-related problems that can occur in boilers burning municipal solid waste (MSW). It describes corrosion mechanisms associated with different environments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... Heat treatment Mechanical working Preferred orientation of grains and grain boundaries (texture) Mechanical properties (strength, fracture toughness, etc.) Environmental Temperature Types of environments: gaseous, liquid, liquid metal, etc. Partial pressure of damaging species...