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Published: 01 June 2007
Fig. 9.3 Salt spray test results. (a) 304 alloys. (b) 316 regular alloys. (c) 316 special alloys. (d) SS-100 alloys. B-rating, attack of 1% or less of the surface; C-rating, attack of 1 to 25% of the surface; D-rating, attack of more than 25% of the surface. Source: Ref 15 . Reprinted More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 5.41 As-received surface 316 specimen after testing at 649 °C (1200 °F) for 2000 h in He-1500 μatm H 2 -450 μatm CO-50 μatm CH 4 -50 μatm H 2 O. Area 1: Fe-Ni metallic phase, Area 2: Cr-Mn-Si oxides, and Area 3: Fe-Ni metallic phase. Unetched condition. Source: Ref 57 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 4 Precipitation kinetics in 316 stainless steel. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 7 Special finishes for 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steels available from one manufacturer. (a) Rolled-in low-glare finish (InvariMatte). (b) Rolled-in no. 4 finish (InvariBlend). (c) Rolled-in moderate-glare finish (InvariLux). Source: Contrarian Metal Resources ( Ref 8 ) More
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 19 SEM fractograph of type 316 stainless steel tested in creep to fracture in air at 800 °C (1470 °F) at a load of 103 MPa (15 ksi). Time to rupture, 808 h. The fractograph illustrates the formation of cavities at the grain boundaries. Original magnification at 1260× More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 4 Two views of deep pits in a type 316 stainless steel centrifuge head due to exposure to CaCl 2 solution More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 20 Severe localized corrosion on a type 316 stainless steel heat exchanger tube. Attack occurred beneath deposits, which were removed to show wastage. Source: Nalco Chemical Company More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 36 Effect of contact with lead on erosion-corrosion of type 316 stainless steel. The velocity of the 10% sulfuric acid solution was 12 m/s (39 ft/s) More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 5.47 Micrographs of a cold-worked AISI 316 stainless steel sheet taken with (a) bright-field illumination and (b) differential interference contrast illumination. Note the excellent clarity of surface relief in the differential interference contrast illumination. Electrolytic etch (10 More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 5.58 A large, unmounted sheet of AISI 316 stainless steel with a test weld placed on the stage of an upright metallurgical microscope. The specimen rests on a large ball of clay. Note that the objective is missing from the nosepiece, exposing the specimen surface to the light beam. More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 5.60 Micrograph of the delta ferrite (dark) in the welded area of the AISI 316 stainless steel specimen in Fig. 5.58 . Electrolytic etch (10% oxalic acid in water, stainless steel cathode). 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.44 Grain and twin boundaries in a sensitized AISI/SAE 316 austenitic stainless steel. 4% picral plus hydrochloric acid etch. 250× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.46 Annealed AISI/SAE 316 austenitic stainless steel showing grain boundaries but the absence of twins. Ideal for grain size measurements by image analysis. Electrolytically etched with 60% nitric acid and 40% water using a platinum cathode at 5 V. 500× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.47 Delta ferrite stringers in an AISI/SAE 316 austenitic stainless steel. Electrolytically etched with 60% nitric acid and 40% water using a stainless steel cathode at 10 V. 500× More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 2 Crevice corrosion under seal in type 316 stainless steel sieve from steam condenser cooling water system exposed to flowing seawater for two years at less than 40 °C (104 °F). Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 4 Corroded type 316 stainless steel pipe from a black liquor evaporator. Two forms of attack are evident: preferential attack of the weld metal ferrite, suffered during HCl acid cleaning, and less severe attack in the sensitized HAZ center. Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.53 Micrograph of a sample of stainless steel AISI 316 subjected to unidirectional solidification in the direction indicated by the arrow. Columnar grains from solidification are evident. Dendrite images are clearly visible because this steel initially solidifies as austenite More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 1.11 Micrograph of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel showing a microstructure consisting of 100% austenite. The straight-edged areas (marked by arrows) within the grains are annealing twins. Electrolytically etched in 60 parts nitric acid in 40 parts water, stainless steel cathode, at 6 More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 2.36 Austenite grains in an AISI/SAE 316 austenitic stainless steel. Straight-edged regions are annealing twins. 4% picral and HCl etch. 500× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.43 Microstructure of an AISI/SAE 316 stainless steel showing sensitization. Note the chromium carbides at the austenite grain boundaries. The steel was exposed to 675 °C (1250 °F) for 12 days. HCl/HNO 3 /H 2 O etch. 1000× More