Instrumented indentation hardness testing significantly expands on the capabilities of traditional hardness testing. It employs high-resolution instrumentation to continuously control and monitor the loads and displacements of an indenter as it is driven into and withdrawn from a material. The scope of application comprises displacements even smaller than 200 nm (nano range) and forces even up to 30 kN . Mechanical properties are derived from the indentation load-displacement data obtained in simple tests. The chapter presents the elements of contact mechanics that are important for the application of the instrumented indentation test. The test method according to the international standard (ISO 14577) is discussed, and this information is supplemented by information about the testing technique and some example applications. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the extensions of the standard that are expected in the future (estimation of the measurement uncertainty and procedures for the determination of true stress-strain curves).