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This chapter examines the surface interactions that occur during metal forming operations at both the macroscopic and microscopic scale. It describes the measurement and characterization of surface profiles based on form error, waviness, and roughness. It explains how workpiece surfaces become rougher or smoother due to the effects of deformation, tooling interactions, and lubricant film thickness. It familiarizes readers with the concept of nominal contact, the role of asperities, and the effects of interface pressure, plasticity index, shear stress, and bulk strain rate. It also reviews the two basic friction rules applicable to metal forming and presents advanced friction models that account for the transition between Coulomb and Tresca behavior and the effects of lubrication.

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