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Iron and steel have been the most useful materials to meet the needs of several industries for many decades. Each iron and steel alloy offers unique attributes that make them the best choice for an application. This chapter provides an overview of each ferrous alloy—gray iron, malleable iron, compacted graphite iron (CGI), ductile iron, austempered ductile iron (ADI), and carbon steel and low-alloy steel; its versatile attributes; and its individual applications. A large section of the chapter covers the impact of electric vehicles on the future of the iron and steel castings industry, including discussion on electric vehicle categories...

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