Chapter 14: Tensile Testing at Low Temperatures
This chapter details low-temperature test procedures and equipment. It discusses the role temperature plays in the properties of typical engineering materials. The effect that lowering the temperature of a solid has on the mechanical properties of a material is summarized for three principal groups of engineering materials: metals, ceramics, and polymers (including fiber-reinforced polymers). The chapter describes the factors that influence the selection of tensile testing procedures for low-temperature evaluation, along with a comparison of tensile and compression tests. It covers the parameters and standards related to low-temperature tensile testing. The chapter discusses the factors involved in controlling test temperature. Finally, the chapter discusses the safety issues concerning the use of cooled methanol, liquid-nitrogen, and liquid helium.