Chapter 6: Annealing of Metals and Normalizing of Steel
This chapter describes the general characteristics of major types of steel annealing, including the process of normalization, which is a process that refines or normalizes the microstructure of steel. The first part of the chapter begins with an overview of the three-stage process of recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. This is followed by discussions on annealing processes, namely subcritical annealing, critical-range annealing, full annealing, isothermal annealing, annealing for microstructure, and solution or quench annealing. Next, the chapter describes two undesirable reactions that occur during annealing: decarburization and scaling. Information on the gases and gas mixtures used for controlled atmospheres is then provided. The second part of the chapter focuses on the processes involved in normalizing, along with information on furnace equipment for normalizing. In addition, the chapter includes information on processes involved in induction heating of steel.
Annealing of Metals and Normalizing of Steel, Practical Heat Treating: Basic Principles, By Jon L. Dossett, ASM International, 2020, p 127–161, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
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