This article explains how malleable iron is produced and how its microstructure and properties differ from those of gray and ductile iron. Malleable iron is first cast as white iron then annealed to convert the iron carbide into irregularly shaped graphite particles called temper carbon. Although malleable iron has largely been replaced by ductile iron, the article explains that it is still sometimes preferred for thin-section castings that require maximum machinability and wear resistance. The article also discusses the annealing and alloying processes by which these properties are achieved.
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