Chapter 6: Forging and Forming
This chapter discusses the similarities and differences of forging and forming processes used in the production of wrought superalloy parts. Although forming is rarely concerned with microstructure, forging processes are often designed with microstructure in mind. Besides shaping, the objectives of forging may include grain refinement, control of second-phase morphology, controlled grain flow, and the achievement of specific microstructures and properties. The chapter explains how these objectives can be met by managing work energy via temperature and deformation control. It also discusses the forgeability of alloys, addresses problems and practical issues, and describes the forging of gas turbine disks. On the topic of forming, the chapter discusses the processes involved, the role of alloying elements, and the effect of alloy condition on formability. It addresses practical concerns such as forming speed, rolling direction, rerolling, and heat treating precipitation-hardened alloys. It presents several application examples involving carbide-hardened cobalt-base and other superalloys, and it concludes with a discussion on superplasticity and its adaptation to commercial forging and forming operations.
Forging and Forming, Superalloys: A Technical Guide, 2nd ed., By Matthew J. Donachie, Stephen J. Donachie, ASM International, 2002, p 91–115, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
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