Embrittlement of a Titanium Heater Tube
Brief overheating of the 89 mm OD 6.4 mm wall thickness titanium heater tubes (ASTM B337, grade 2) was caused by a flow stoppage in a leach heater. Blue-tinted areas and patches of flaky white, yellow, and brown oxide scale was revealed on visual examination. It was disclosed by subjecting the overheated tube to a flattening test that the tube no longer met ASTM B 337 specifications. Large grain size and numerous needlelike hydride particles were disclosed in the microstructure of the overheated tube. Heating to approximately 815 deg C was revealed by the presence of the flaky oxide...
Embrittlement of a Titanium Heater Tube, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048757
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