A shopping mall in South Carolina was originally constructed in 1988 and a second phase completed in 1989. The HVAC system inside the mall included an open, recirculating condenser water loop that served various fan coil units located within tenant spaces. The system had a recirculating capacity of about 44,000 gal (166,000 L) of water. It consisted primarily of steel pipes fitted with threaded connectors on the 2 in. (46 cm) pipes and bolted flanged couplings on the larger pipes. Seven years following the completion of the mall, corrosion problems were noted at the outer and inner surfaces of...
A.H. Khan, Corrosion of Steel Pipe in a Heating and Cooling System, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
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