AISI/SAE Alloy Steels: Atlas of Fractographs
This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of AISI/SAE alloy steels (4xxx steels) and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the brittle fracture, ductile fracture, impact fracture, fatigue fracture surface, reversed torsional fatigue fracture, transgranular cleavage fracture, rotating bending fatigue, tension-overload fracture, torsion-overload fracture, slip band crack, crack growth and crack initiation, crack nucleation, microstructure, hydrogen embrittlement, sulfide stress-corrosion failure, stress-corrosion cracking, and hitch post shaft failure of these steels. The components considered in the article include tail-rotor drive-pinion shafts, pinion gears, outboard-motor crankshafts, bull gears, diesel engine bearing cap bolts, splined shafts, aircraft horizontal tail-actuator shafts, bucket elevators, aircraft propellers, helicopter bolts, air flasks, tie rod ball studs, and spiral gears.
AISI/SAE Alloy Steels: Atlas of Fractographs, Fractography, Vol 12, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1987, p 291–344, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
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