Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds. This article describes the surface-tension-driven fluid flow model and its experimental observations. The effects of mass transport on arc plasma and weld pool are discussed. The article reviews the strategies for controlling poor and variable penetration and describes the formation of keyhole and fluid flow in electron beam and laser welds. It also explains the fluid flow in gas metal arc welding and submerged arc welding, presenting its transport equations.
W. Zhang, Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding, Welding Fundamentals and Processes, Vol 6A, ASM Handbook, Edited By T. Lienert, T. Siewert, S. Babu, V. Acoff, ASM International, 2011, p 89–95, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005579
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