Projection welding is a variation of resistance welding in which current flow is concentrated at the point of contact with a local geometric extension of one (or both) of the parts being welded. This article focuses on the process fundamentals, advantages, and limitations of projection welding and reviews the equipment used in the process. It discusses projection welding of copper and copper alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys, and steels. The article provides several specifications and recommended weld schedules and practices for projection welding. It describes the embossed-projection welding of heavy-, intermediate-, and thin-gage sheet mild steel as well as the welds between dissimilar thickness joints. The article also considers the solid-projection welding of steels: annular, nut, and cross-wire projection configurations. It also details the various tests that can be used to validate projection weld quality.
Warren Peterson, Projection Welding, Welding Fundamentals and Processes, Vol 6A, ASM Handbook, Edited By T. Lienert, T. Siewert, S. Babu, V. Acoff, ASM International, 2011, p 423–437, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005626
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