Bulk and Surface Characterization of Powders
This article discusses the capabilities and limitations of various material characterization methods that assist in the selection of a proper analytical tool for analyzing particulate materials. Commonly used methods are microanalysis, surface analysis, and bulk analysis. The techniques used for performing microanalysis include scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The article describes surface analysis techniques, including Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ion-scattering spectroscopy. Bulk analysis techniques, such as X-ray powder diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and atomic fluorescence spectrometry, are also discussed.
R. Tandon, Charles Carson, Bulk and Surface Characterization of Powders, Powder Metallurgy, Vol 7, ASM Handbook, Edited By P. Samal, J. Newkirk, ASM International, 2015, p 145–153, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
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