The field of bioprinting is a subset of additive manufacturing (AM) that is rapidly expanding to meet the needs of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Bioprinting encompasses a broad spectrum of issues, from cell expansion and novel bioink development to cell/stem cell printing, from organoid-based tissue organization to bioprinting of human-scale tissue structures, and from building cell/tissue/organ-on-a-chip to biomanufacturing of multicellular engineered living systems. This article focuses on two challenges regarding bioprinting: bioinks and crosslinking. It describes the methods for characterizing the performance of bioink formulations and the effectiveness of crosslinking strategies. The topics covered include modalities of bioprinting, characteristics of bioink, rheological properties of bioink sols, rheological measurements, mathematical models of bioink rheology, postfabrication polymer network mechanics, mechanical properties of crosslinked bioinks, and printability of bioinks. Finally, specific strategies used for crosslinking bioinks, as well as some emerging strategies to further improve bioinks and their crosslinking, are summarized.
Roland Kaunas, Rational Design of Materials for 3D Bioprinting of Bioinks for Fabricating Human Tissues, Additive Manufacturing in Biomedical Applications, Vol 23A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Roger J. Narayan, ASM International, 2022, p 237–245, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006904
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