This chapter discusses the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of nondestructive hardness testing methods for metals, including electromagnetic impulse testing, photothermal testing, scratch hardness testing, and ultrasonic contact impedance testing. It also discusses the use of ultrasound to determine the depth of hardening in a metal or alloy. The chapter reviews methods used to check and calibrate hardness testing machines and indenters and the use of hardness reference blocks for verification and calibration of test machines. It also addresses conversion of hardness values determined by one method to equivalent values for a different method.
T. Polzin, K. Herrmann, Hardness Testing of Metals—Contactless and Other Nondestructive Methods, Hardness Testing: Principles and Applications, Edited By Konrad Herrmann, ASM International, 2011, p 91–118, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310091
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