Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys
Hot-Rolled Steel Bars and Shapes
Hot-rolled steel bars and other hot-rolled steel shapes are produced from ingots, blooms, or billets converted from ingots or from strand cast blooms or billets and comprise a variety of sizes and cross sections. Most carbon steel and alloy steel hot-rolled bars and shapes contain surface imperfections with varying degrees of severity. Seams, laps, and slivers are probably the most common defects in hot-rolled bars and shapes. Another condition that could be considered a surface defect is decarburization. Hot-rolled steel bars and shapes can be produced to chemical composition ranges or limits, mechanical property requirements, or both. Hot-rolled carbon steel bars are produced to two primary quality levels: merchant quality and special quality. Merchant quality is the least restrictive descriptor for hot-rolled carbon steel bars. Special quality bars are employed when end use, method of fabrication, or subsequent processing treatment requires characteristics not available in merchant quality bars.
Timothy E. Moss, J.M. Hambright, T.E. Murphy, J.A. Schmidt, Hot-Rolled Steel Bars and Shapes, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys, Vol 1, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 240–247, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001014
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