The draw-in bolt and collet from a vertical-spindle milling machine broke during routine cutting of blind recesses after a relatively long service life. The collet ejected at a high rotational speed due to loss of its vertical support and shattered one of its arms upon impact with the work table. SEM fractography and metallographic examinations conducted on the bolt revealed hairline indications along grain facets on the fracture surface and stepwise cracking in the material, both indicating failure by hydrogen embrittlement. Similar draw-in bolts were discarded and replaced with bolts manufactured using controlled processes.
Eli Levy, Hydrogen Embrittlement Delayed Failure of a 4340 Steel Draw-In Bolt, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 2, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1993, p 401–404, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001384
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