This chapter begins with a description of the requirements of tooling and tooling material for hot extrusion. It covers the processes of designing tool and die sets for direct and indirect extrusion. Next, the chapter provides information on extrusion tooling and die sets for direct external and internal shape production and tools for copper alloy extrusion. Further, it addresses design, calculation, and dimensioning of single-piece and two-part containers and describes induction heating for containers. Information on static- and elastic-based analysis and dimensioning of containers loaded in three dimensions is provided. Examples of calculations for different containers, along with their stresses and dimensions, are presented and the manufacture, operation, and maintenance of containers are described. The chapter further discusses the properties and applications of hot working materials for the manufacture of extrusion tooling and of different extruded materials for the manufacture of extrusion tooling for direct and indirect forming.
Günther Sauer, Adolf Ames, Extrusion Tooling, Extrusion, 2nd ed., By A.F. Castle;Edited By M. Bauser, G. Sauer, K. Siegert, ASM International, 2006, p 417–549, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980417
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