The machinery and equipment required for rod and tube extrusion is determined by the specific extrusion process. This chapter provides a detailed description of the design requirements and principles of machinery and equipment for direct and indirect hot extrusion. It then covers the presses and auxiliary equipment for tube extrusion, induction furnaces for billet processing, handling systems for copper and aluminum alloy products, extrusion cooling systems, and age-hardening ovens. Next, the chapter describes the principles and applications of equipment for the production of aluminum and copper billets. Then, it focuses on process control in both direct and indirect hot extrusion of aluminum alloys without lubrication. The chapter describes the technology of electrical and electronic controls in the extrusion process. It ends with a discussion on the factors that influence the productivity and quality of the products in the extrusion process and methods for process optimization.
Horst Groos, Machinery and Equipment for Direct and Indirect Hot Extrusion, Extrusion, 2nd ed., By A.F. Castle;Edited By M. Bauser, G. Sauer, K. Siegert, ASM International, 2006, p 323–416, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
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