Extrusion (Second Edition)
Chapter 3: Rod and Tube Extrusion Processes
This chapter opens with a discussion of the classification of rod and tube extrusion processes. The standard processes involve hot working (extrusion at temperatures above room temperature), but some specialized cold working processes are also used for rod and tube extrusion. The next section reviews principles, variations, thermal conditions, axial load calculation, material flow, and applications of direct extrusion and indirect extrusion, with examples provided for extrusion of aluminum and copper alloys. Next, the chapter focuses on the process principles, advantages, and applications of conventional hydrostatic extrusion and thick film processes. This is followed by sections providing information on the special extrusion processes, namely conform process and cable sheathing. The chapter ends with a discussion on direct and indirect tube extrusion.
Klaus Siegert, Rod and Tube Extrusion Processes, Extrusion, 2nd ed., By A.F. Castle;Edited By M. Bauser, G. Sauer, K. Siegert, ASM International, 2006, p 59–139, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980059
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