Zirconium, hafnium, and titanium are produced from ore that generally is found in a heavy beach sand containing zircon, rutile, and ilmenite. This article discusses the processing methods of these metals, namely, liquid-liquid separation process, distillation separation process, refining, and melting. It also discusses the primary and secondary fabrication of zirconium and hafnium and its alloys. The article talks about the metallurgy of zirconium and its alloys with emphasis on allotropic transformation, cold work and recrystallization, anisotropy and preferred orientation, and the role of oxygen. It concludes by providing useful information on the applications of reactor and industrial grades of zirconium alloys.
R. Terrence Webster, Zirconium and Hafnium, Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, Vol 2, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 661–669, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001084
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