X-Ray Diffraction Residual-Stress Measurement in Failure Analysis
X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways in which XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual stresses in a component or assembly and to the subsequent evaluation of corrective actions that alter the residual-stress state of a component for the purposes of preventing, minimizing, or eradicating the contribution of residual stress to premature failures. The article presents a practical approach to sample selection and specimen preparation, measurement location selection, and measurement depth selection; measurement validation is outlined as well. A number of case studies and examples are cited. The article also briefly summarizes the theory of XRD analysis and describes advances in equipment capability.
J.A. Pineault, M. Belassel, M.E. Brauss, X-Ray Diffraction Residual-Stress Measurement in Failure Analysis, Failure Analysis and Prevention, Vol 11, 2021 ed., ASM Handbook, Edited By Brett A. Miller, Roch J. Shipley, Ronald J. Parrington, Daniel P. Dennies, ASM International, 2021, p 221–239, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
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