Optimal Control of Induction Heating of Metals Prior to Warm and Hot Forming
This article describes the effects of furnace atmospheric elements, including air, water vapor, molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide, on steels. It provides useful information on six groups of commercially important prepared atmospheres classified by the American Gas Association on the basis of the method of preparation or on the original constituents employed. These groups are designated and defined as follows: Class 100, exothermic base; Class 200, prepared nitrogen base; Class 300, endothermic base; Class 400, charcoal base; Class 500, exothermic-endothermic base; and Class 600, ammonia base. These are subclassified and numerically designated to indicate variations in the method by which they are prepared. The article also contains a table that lists significant furnace atmospheres and typical applications.
Edgar Rapoport, Yulia Pleshivtseva, Optimal Control of Induction Heating of Metals Prior to Warm and Hot Forming, Induction Heating and Heat Treatment, Vol 4C, ASM Handbook, Edited By Valery Rudnev, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2014, p 366–401, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005893
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