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This chapter discusses the fundamentals of heat treating of alloy steels. It begins with an overview of the designations of AISI-SAE grades of alloy steels, followed by a description of the purposes served by alloying elements. The effects of specific alloying elements on the heat treatment of alloy steels and of boron on hardenability of alloy steels are then discussed. Procedures for heat treating four specific alloy steels (4037, 4037H; 4140, 4140H; 4340, 4340; and E52100) are subsequently presented. The chapter concludes with a brief account of austempering and martempering treatments.

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