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This chapter explains the definition of carbon steels and lists the Unified Numbering System designations and the compositions that are universally accepted by steel producers and fabricators. Compositions of higher hardenability carbon steels (higher manganese grades and/or boron treated steels) are also discussed, as well as those of free-machining carbon steels. Detailed heat treating procedures are presented for a representative group of carbon steels. The processes involved in tempering and austempering of carbon steels are also discussed.

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