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The temperature and atmosphere conditions must be precisely controlled in order to achieve the desired metallurgical results during heat treating operations. In order to ensure the repeatability of operation, a heat treating system must have the necessary sensors, timers, and variable (temperature, atmosphere, etc.) controllers to hold the process within prescribed or specified limits. This chapter discusses temperature and atmosphere sensors used in a heat treating system. The temperature sensors covered are contact and noncontact types. The atmosphere sensors covered are oxygen probe, dew point, and infrared. The chapter concludes with an overview of the development of integrated control systems.

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