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In order to understand how various types of single-load fractures are caused, one must understand the forces acting on the metals and also the characteristics of the metals themselves. All fractures are caused by stresses. Stress systems are best studied by examining free-body diagrams, which are simplified models of complex stress systems. Free-body diagrams of shafts in the pure types of loading (tension, torsion, and compression) are the simplest; they then can be related to more complex types of loading. This chapter discusses the principles of these simplest loading systems in ductile and brittle metals.

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Stress Systems Related to Single-Load Fracture of Ductile and Brittle Metals, Understanding How Components Fail, 3rd ed., By Donald J. Wulpi;Edited By Brett Miller, ASM International, 2013, p 71–80,

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