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From a fundamental standpoint, there are only two modes, or ways, in which metals can fracture under single, or monotonic, loads: shear and cleavage. There are fracture modes other than shear and cleavage. These include intergranular and quasi-cleavage fracture modes for single-load applications, and fatigue for multiple-load applications. Each of these fracture modes are discussed in this chapter. The factors affecting the ductile brittle relationship are also covered.

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Basic Single-Load Fracture Modes, Understanding How Components Fail, 3rd ed., By Donald J. Wulpi;Edited By Brett Miller, ASM International, 2013, p 63–69,

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