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Residual, or locked-in internal, stresses are regions of misfit within a metal part or assembly that can cause distortion and fracture just as can the more obvious applied, or service, stresses. This chapter describes the fundamental facts about residual stresses and discusses the basic mechanisms of residual stress formation: thermal, transformational, mechanical, and chemical.

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Residual Stresses, Understanding How Components Fail, 3rd ed., By Donald J. Wulpi;Edited By Brett Miller, ASM International, 2013, p 35–54,

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