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After the fault-tree, a failure-cause identification method has identified potential failure causes and the failure analysis team has prepared a failure mode assessment and assignment (FMA&A). The team knows specifically what to search for when examining components and subassemblies from the failed system. There are numerous techniques and technologies available for examining and analyzing components and subassemblies, which are categorized as follows: optical approaches, dimensional inspection and related approaches, nondestructive test approaches, mechanical and environmental approaches, and chemical and composition analysis for assessing material characteristics. This chapter is a detailed account of the working principle and the steps involved in these techniques and technologies.

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