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Grain size has a determining effect on the mechanical properties of steel and responds favorably to forging and heat treating. This chapter explains how to measure and quantify grain size and how to control it through thermal cycling and forging operations. It describes how surface tension acting on grain-boundary segments contributes to grain growth and how the formation of new grains, driven by phase transformations and recrystallization, lead to a reduction in average grain size. It also discusses the effect of alloying elements on grain growth rates, particularly the curbing effect of particle and solute drag.

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Control of Grain Size by Heat Treatment and Forging, Steel Metallurgy for the Non-Metallurgist, By John D. Verhoeven, ASM International, 2007, p 71–82,

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