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Steels contain a wide range of elements, including alloys as well as residual processing impurities. This chapter describes the chemical composition of low-alloy AISI steels, which are classified based on the amounts of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel they contain. It explains why manganese is sometimes added to steel and how unintended consequences, such as the development of sulfide stringers, can offset the benefits. It also examines the effect of alloying elements on the iron-carbon phase diagram, particularly their effect on transformation temperatures.

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The Low-Alloy AISI Steels, Steel Metallurgy for the Non-Metallurgist, By John D. Verhoeven, ASM International, 2007, p 55–61,

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