Failure Investigation of Boiler Tubes: A Comprehensive Approach
Chapter 7: Role of Water Chemistry in Boiler Tube Failure
Water chemistry is a factor in nearly all boiler tube failures. It contributes to the formation of scale, biofilms, and sludge, determines deposition rates, and drives the corrosion process. This chapter explains how water chemistry is managed in boilers and describes the effect of impurities and feedwater parameters on high-pressure boiler components. It discusses deposition and scaling, types of corrosion, and carryover, a condition that occurs when steam becomes contaminated with droplets of boiler water. The chapter also covers water treatment procedures, including filtration, chlorination, ion exchange, demineralization, reverse osmosis, caustic and chelant treatment, oxygen scavenging, and colloidal, carbonate, phosphate, and sodium aluminate conditioning.