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This chapter discusses the classification, composition, properties, and applications of five types of stainless steels: austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation-hardening steels. It discusses the process involved in argon oxygen decarburization that is used to refine stainless steel. The chapter also provides information on the classification and composition of stainless steel castings. It concludes with a brief description of the Schaeffler constitution diagram which is useful in predicting the type of stainless steel as a function of its alloy content.

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