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This chapter describes the general characteristics of two commonly classified metalworking processes, namely hot working and cold working. Primary metalworking processes, such as the bulk deformation processes used to conduct the initial breakdown of cast ingots, are always conducted hot. Secondary processes, which are used to produce the final product shape, are conducted either hot or cold. The chapter discusses the primary objectives, principal types, advantages, and disadvantages of both primary and secondary metalworking processes. They are rolling, forging, extrusion, sheet metal forming processes, blanking and piercing, bending, stretch forming, drawing, rubber pad forming, and superplastic forming.

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2008. "Deformation Processing", Elements of Metallurgy and Engineering Alloys, F.C. Campbell

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