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One of the primary advantages of steels is their ability to attain high strengths through heat treatment while still retaining some degree of ductility. Heat treatments can be used to not only harden steels but also to provide other useful combinations of properties, such as ductility, formability, and machinability. This chapter discusses various heat treatment processes, namely annealing, stress relieving, normalizing, spheroidizing, and hardening by austenitizing, quenching and tempering. It also discusses two types of interrupted quenching processes: martempering and austempering. The chapter concludes with a brief section on temper embrittlement.

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2008. "Heat Treatment of Steel", Elements of Metallurgy and Engineering Alloys, F.C. Campbell

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