Chapter 7: Solidification and Casting
Almost all metals and alloys are produced from liquids by solidification. For both castings and wrought products, the solidification process has a major influence on both the microstructure and mechanical properties of the final product. This chapter discusses the three zones that a metal cast into a mold can have: a chill zone, a zone containing columnar grains, and a center-equiaxed grain zone. Since the way in which alloys partition on freezing, it follows that all castings are segregated to different categories. The different types of segregation discussed include normal, gravity, micro, and inverse. The chapter also provides information on grain refinement and secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity and shrinkage in castings. It concludes with a brief overview of six of the most important casting processes in industries: sand casting, plaster mold casting, evaporative pattern casting, investment casting, permanent mold casting, and die casting.