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Bonding in solids may be classified as either primary or secondary bonding. Methods of primary bonding include the metallic, ionic, and covalent bonds. This chapter discusses and provides a comparison of the properties of these bonds. This is followed by a discussion on crystalline structure, providing information on space lattices and crystal systems, hexagonal close-packed systems, and face-centered and body-centered cubic systems. The chapter then covers slip systems and closes with a brief section on allotropic transformations that occur at a constant temperature during either heating or cooling.

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