Part I: Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy
Bonding in solids may be classified as either primary or secondary bonding. Methods of primary bonding include the metallic, ionic, and covalent bonds. This chapter discusses and provides a comparison of the properties of these bonds. This is followed by a discussion on crystalline structure, providing information on space lattices and crystal systems, hexagonal close-packed systems, and face-centered and body-centered cubic systems. The chapter then covers slip systems and closes with a brief section on allotropic transformations that occur at a constant temperature during either heating or cooling.
In a perfect crystalline structure, there is an orderly repetition of the lattice in every direction in space. Real crystals contain a considerable number of imperfections, or defects, that affect their physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. Defects play an important role in processes such as deformation, annealing, precipitation, diffusion, and sintering. All defects and imperfections can be conveniently classified under four main divisions: point defects, line defects, planar defects, and volume defects. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the causes, nature, and impact of these defects in metals. It also describes the mechanisms that cause plastic deformation in metals.