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Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms, that can significantly alter the response of the material in a given environment. This chapter provides a detailed account of all these types of corrosion affecting various industries, pointing out the connection between the characteristics of the corrosive environment that control corrosion behavior, the corrosion characteristics of various metals and materials systems, and the subsequent corrosion response.

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