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This appendix focuses on procedures, techniques, and precautions associated with the investigation and analysis of metallurgical failures that occur in service. It describes the steps of an orderly failure analysis from collecting and examining samples to performing mechanical and nondestructive tests, preparing and examining fractographs and micrographs, determining failure mode, writing the report, and developing follow-up recommendations. It also examines the fundamental mechanisms of failure, why they occur, and how to identify them by their characteristic features.

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