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Copper steels are precipitation-strengthened steels that are designed to have a unique combination of physical and mechanical properties. This article provides an overview of copper precipitate-strengthened steels and their applications, and discusses appropriate ASTM International standards. It describes the common phases and alloying elements present in copper precipitate-strengthened steels, and reviews the influences of alloying elements on processing, phase diagrams, microstructures, and mechanical properties. The article also discusses the thermomechanical process, solutionizing heat treatment, and isothermal aging in detail. It concludes with a review of the interrelationships between heat treatments, microstructures, and mechanical properties.

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