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This article describes the most common, general-purpose analog design-for-test (DFT) methods, analog test buses and loopback, and shows their advantages and limitations in diagnosability and automatability. It also describes DFT and built-in self-test (BIST) techniques for the most common analog functions, namely phase-locked loop, serializer-deserializer, analog/digital converters, and radio frequency. Lastly, the challenges of creating BIST for analog functions are summarized, along with seven principles that must be exploited to meet these challenges. These principles show how the design constraints for analog BIST circuitry can be more relaxed than for the circuit under test, while delivering the required test accuracy and speed.

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Stephen Sunter, An Overview of Analog Design for Test and Diagnosis, Microelectronics Failure Analysis: Desk Reference, 7th ed., Edited By Tejinder Gandhi, ASM International, 2019, p 643–651,

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