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The complexity of semiconductor chips and their packages has continuously challenged the known methods to analyze them. With larger laminates and the inclusion of multiple stacked die, methods to analyze modern semiconductor products are being pushed toward their limits to support these 2.5D and 3D packages. This article focuses on these methods of fault isolation, non-destructive imaging, and destructive techniques through an iterative process for failure analysis of complex packages.

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Douglas Hunt, Pradip Pichumani, Kevin Distelhurst, Michael Coster, 2.5D and 3D Packaging Failure Analysis Techniques, Microelectronics Failure Analysis: Desk Reference, 7th ed., Edited By Tejinder Gandhi, ASM International, 2019, p 550–562,

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